In contrast to what most exit polls had said, the Grand Alliance of the Janata Dal-United (JD-U), the Rashtriya Janata Dal (RJD) and the Congress won a whopping 178 of the 243 seats, leaving the BJP -- which wanted to oust Nitish Kumar -- and its allies with just 58 seats.
The RJD and JD-U ended up winning 80 and 71 seats each and the Congress 27. The BJP was the winner in 53 constituencies, and three allies -- the Lok Janshakti Party (LJP), the Hindustani Awam Morcha (HAM) and the Rashtriya Lok Samata Party (RLSP) -- could together bag only five seats (2, 1, 2 respectively).
The Communist Party of India-Marxist-Leninist-Liberation had won three seats and Independents four.
The much-maligned Lalu Prasad's RJD ended up as the single biggest party.
"This is a very big victory. We accept it with humility," Nitish Kumar said in his first comments. "From the national perspective, the result is significant."
Lalu Prasad, who the BJP targeted more viciously during the election campaign, was more emphatic. He called Modi "a RSS pracharak" and vowed to mount a nationwide campaign against the BJP-led central government.
Lalu Prasad also made it clear that although his party had more seats than the JD-U, Nitish Kumar would be the chief minister.
A sombre Modi telephoned Nitish Kumar and congratulated him. So did a stream of opposition leaders from across the country, indicating that the ramifications of the Bihar outcome was already being felt.
West Bengal Chief Minister Mamata Banerjee said the BJP's defeat was a "victory of tolerance, defeat of intolerance".
Delhi Chief Minister and AAP leader Arvind Kejriwal hailed Nitish Kumar on "this historic victory". Kejriwal also said the BJP-led coalition's defeat was a referendum on Modi's "work and working style". He added: "The results prove that people do not approve of the politics of hatred."
The CPI-M said the state's people have ushered in their own 'acche din'. "The main message of the Bihar verdict is people are not going to tolerate any attack on the country's social fabric and secular tradition," party general secretary Sitaram Yechuri told media persons in Kolkata.
The Shiv Sena, the BJP's junior but bitter ally in Maharashtra, said the BJP must accept that the defeat was Modi's doing. Calling Nitish Kumar "a political hero", it said the Bihar result "will be a turning point in the country's political future".
Former Jammu and Kashmir chief minister Omar Abdullah too said that the verdict "will prove critical for the nation in the days ahead".
Even as former BJP deputy chief minister Sushil Kumar Modi said his party would be "a constructive opposition", Bollywood veteran and BJP MP Shatrughan Sinha -- unhappy over being sidelined by party president Amit Shah -- called the BJP defeat "a victory for democracy and the people of Bihar... The writing was always on the wall".
The BJP conceded defeat. "This is not an outcome we expected," its general secretary Ram Madhav said. "This defeat calls for serious thinking."
Union minister Prakash Javadekar blamed the defeat on BJP's "alliance arithmetic". Its vice president Prabhat Jha said: "We failed to understand people's mind. We will have to change our election strategy."
Compared to the number of assembly segments it led in the 2014 Lok Sabha election, the BJP lost every second seat.
JD-U's Pavan Verma targeted Modi. "It is a defeat for Modi and (BJP president) Amit Shah." MIM chief Asaduddin Owaisi, whose MIM contested six seats and lost all, also said: "It is a personal defeat for Modi as never before has a prime minister campaigned so much in a (state) election."
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